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Signal Provider Used Misleading Hypothetical, Backtested Performance

An index signal provider, who also managed assets, agreed to a fine, censure and an outside compliance consultant for utilizing misleading hypothetical backtested performance information.  The SEC alleges that the calculations of the hypothetical, backtested performance for one of its core strategies deviated significantly from the live data, failed to conform to the firm’s model rules, and utilized an unavailable commodity index.  The SEC also faults the firm for failing to properly supervise a third-party index provider hired to create the backtested performance.  The SEC charges violations of the Advisers Act’s antifraud provisions (206(2)), advertising rule (206(4)-1(a)(5)), and compliance rule (206(4)-7). 

This case against an index provider adds fuel to the fire started by Investment Management Director Dalia Blass who last year questioned whether index providers should be exempt from investment adviser registration.  Also, as we have said before, do not use hypothetical, backtested performance information in marketing and advertising. 

The Friday List: 10 Adviser Marketing Practices to Avoid

Today, we offer our “Friday List,” an occasional feature summarizing a topic significant to investment management professionals interested in regulatory issues.  Our Friday Lists are an expanded “Our Take” on a particular subject, offering our unique (and sometimes controversial) perspective on an industry topic.

Last year, the SEC’s Office of Compliance Inspections and Examinations issued a Risk Alert warning advisers to review their marketing and advertising practices.  More recently, OCIE alerted advisers to widespread noncompliance with the solicitation rule.  Meanwhile, the Enforcement Division has brought several actions alleging that adviser marketing practices violated applicable law.   With this increased scrutiny, advisers should re-assess the following marketing practices to avoid material exam deficiencies or enforcement actions:


10 Adviser Marketing Practices to Avoid

  1. Hypothetical Back-Tested Performance.  The SEC has consistently targeted the use of hypothetical, backtested performance, and the Enforcement Division has brought numerous cases.
  2. Gross Performance.  Although firms can present gross performance in a few limited situations, most should firms should always present performance information net of fees.
  3. Misrepresenting Investment Strategy.  Sales personnel should not make representations about investment products that are inconsistent with disclosure documents.
  4. Receiving Revenue Sharing.  The SEC will heavily scrutinize undisclosed revenue sharing that incent advisers to sell certain products.
  5. Faulty GIPS Compliance.  Claiming compliance with GIPS (CFA Institute) performance standards but failing to actually comply with those standards will draw the ire of the regulators.
  6. Cherry-Picking Performance.  The SEC will challenge firms that only show good performance of certain past specific recommendations.
  7. Testimonials.  Rule 206(4)-1(a)(1) specifically prohibits the use of testimonials. Yet, too-clever advisers keep trying to use them, resulting in enforcement actions.
  8. Lying about Credentials.  Don’t present credentials that are inconsistent with your actual work experience in an effort to market greater expertise.  
  9. Inflating AUM.  Avoid using unverifiable assets under management totals in marketing materials or on Form ADV.
  10. Claiming Clean Compliance.  When asked in an RFP to describe compliance deficiencies identified during exams, do not ignore the question or say “none” unless it’s true.

Adviser Inflated AUM and Touted Fake Returns

An investment adviser has been censured, fined, and barred from the industry for making misleading marketing representations.  The adviser used emails to claim inflated assets under management and tout a non-existent quantitative trading model and historical performance.  The adviser furthered his fraud by putting the fake product and returns on a hedge fund database that was accessed by potential investors.

OUR TAKE: The SEC has warned that it would bring cases against advisers for misleading marketing claims.  Firms should also note that the use of third party databases constitutes marketing subject to the Advisers Act’s anti-fraud rules.